Hélène Boucher, PhD

Doctor of Music Education

 

In the Media

Article : L'anxiété de performance musicale chez les jeunes: Les premiers signes de stress durant un spectacle apparaissent dès l'âge de trois ans, par Jean-François Ducharme,
        dans Actualités UQAM, 31 mars 2021.
       Te Read

Podcast : L'anxiété de performance musicale chez les enfants et les adolescents enregistré dans le cadre de Trajectoire sur CHOQ.ca, en février 2021.
       To Listen

Entrevue radio pour l’émission Musique et Sciences avec Louis Brouillette, diffusée le mercredi 16 septembre 2020, de 13 h 30 à 14 h, à l'antenne de Radio VM.
       To Listen

Podcast : Effet de la musique enregistré lors du Mini-colloque sur l'éveil artistique des tout-petits, Longueuil, Canada, en février 2020.
       To Listen
        early

Publications in Scientific Journals (Peer Review)

child

Gaudette-Leblanc, A., Bolduc, J., Bédard-Bruyère, F., Boucher, H., Pearson, J. and Tarabulsy, G.M. (Submitted to
        International Journal of Music in Early Childhood). Is participation in an early childhood music program related to children's
       socio-emotional development? A meta-analysis.
        Abstract

Ryan, C., Boucher, H. et Ryan, G. (Submitted to International Journal of Music Education). Children’s Feelings about Piano
       Performances Across a Year of Study.
        Abstract

Héroux, I., Boucher, H., Tardif, C. et Barbeau, A.-K. (Submitted to Revue musicale OICRM). Développement d'outils pour l’analyse des ressources numériques utilisées pour
        l’enseignement de la musique en contexte scolaire québécois pendant la pandémie.
        Abstract

Boucher, H., Héroux, I. et Barbeau, A.-K. (Submitted to Revue musicale OICRM). Notes de terrain: Les impacts de la pandémie ​sur les pratiques en enseignement de la
        musique en contexte scolaire ​québécois.
        Abstract

Boucher, H., Lierse, S. and Marzano, G. (Submitted to Sustaining Creativity and the Arts in the Digital Age). A Dialogical View on R. Murray Schafer's Theories and Creative
       Approaches in 21st Century Music Education.
        Abstract

Ryan, C., Boucher, H. et Ryan, G. (2021). Performance preparation, anxiety, and the teacher: Experiences of adolescent pianists. Revue
       musicale OICRM
, 8(1), 53-77. https://revuemusicaleoicrm.org/rmo-vol8-n1/performance-adolescent-pianists/
        Abstract

Boucher, H., Gaudette-Leblanc, A. Raymond, J. et Peters, V. (2020). Musical learning as a contributing factor in the development of socio-
       emotional competence in children aged 4-5 : An exploratory study in a naturalistic context. Early Child Development and Care, 1-17.
        https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/03004430.2020.1862819
        Abstract

Boucher, H. and Moisey, T. (2019). A lived experience of a philosophy of music education inspired by the work of Canadian composer R. Murray Shafer. Creative
       Education
, 10(10), 2111-2131. http://dx.doi.org/DOI:10.4236/ce.2019.1010153
        Abstract

Primeau, D. et Boucher, H. (2019). Quête d’une épistémologie pour l’enseignement et la recherche. Canadian Music Educator, 60(4): 21-26.
       Abstract

Boucher, H. (2019). For a cultural adaptation of the Kodaly approach for French Québécois including the use of the fixed do system. Canadian Music Educator, 60 (3), 14-22.
        Abstract

Boucher, H. and Ryan, C. (2011). Performance stress and the very young musician. Journal of Research in Music Education, 58(4),
       329-345.
        Abstract

Boucher, H. (2009). The occurrence of performance anxiety in early childhood. Proceedings of the Second International Conference
        of Students of Systematic Musicology
, pp. 32-33.
        Abstract

Boucher, H. (2008). The Occurrence of Performance Anxiety in Early Childhood. (Doctoral Dissertation). McGill University, Montreal.
        Abstract

       

Book Chapters

Gaudette-Leblanc, A., Raymond, J. et Boucher, H. (2019). L’éducation musicale au préscolaire: Données issues de la recherche et idées pédagogiques. Dans I. Deshaies et
        J.-M. Mirond (dir.), Tisserands d'enfance: le développement de l'élève de 4-5 ans. Montréal : Les Éditions JFD.
        Abstract

tisserand          

Music Pedagogy Tools

Boucher, H. et Couture, J. (In process). Recueil musical et pédagogique pour le réseau choral des écoles québécoises. Alliance Chorale du Québec.
        https://www.chorales.ca/fr/rceq-recueil-musical-et-pedagogique
       Abstract

       

Publications in Professional Journals

Boucher, H. (2021). A review of Kodály-inspired education and Indigineous people in Canada and beyond in the Bulletin of the International Kodály Society. Alla Breve, 45, 7-14.
        Abstract

Gaudette-Leblanc, A., Boucher, H. et Duval, S. (2021). Faire de la musique… un jeu d’enfant! Revue préscolaire, 59(1), 58-59.
        Abstract

Ricard, J. et Boucher, H. (2021). L’enseignement de la formation auditive : quelle approche choisir? Musique et pédagogie, 35(2), 17-21.
        Abstract

Boucher, H. (2021). Le coin Kodály. Les séquences pédagogiques. Musique et pédagogie, 35(3), 22-26.
        Abstract

popsicle

Boucher, H. (2021). Le coin Kodály. La créativité dans la pédagogie Kodály. Musique et pédagogie, 35(2).
        Abstract

Boucher, H. (2020). Le coin Kodály. Le jeu dans la pédagogie Kodály : pour le plaisir d’apprendre la musique. Musique et pédagogie, 35(1), 7–10.
        Abstract

Boucher, H. (2020). Le coin Kodály. Chantez, chantez et chantez encore ! Musique et pédagogie, 34(3), 8-13.
        Abstract

Boucher, H. (2020). Le coin Kodály. Pourquoi la méthode Kodály dans l'enseignement de la musique? Musique et pédagogie, 34(2), 19–22.
        Abstract

Boucher, H. (2019). Ressources de chansons folkloriques en français/French Folksong Resource. Alla Breve, 43, 10-14.
       Abstract

Gaudette-Leblanc, A. and Boucher, H. (2018). La pratique de la musique en classe de maternelle 4 ans. Données issues de la recherche et recommandations. Revue
       préscolaire
, 56(4).
       Abstract

gamelan          

Articles in writing

Gaudette-Leblanc, A., Bolduc, J., Bédard-Bruyère, F., Boucher, H., Pearson, J., Cirelli, L. and Tarabulsy, G.M. (in process). Do short-
       term musical interactions promote social behaviors in children? A systematic review.
        Abstract

socio-emotional

Boucher, H., Lee, J. et Tardif, C. (in process). A qualitative inquiry into mentoring as a teaching tool for training preservice music teachers in
        early childhood settings.

        Abstract

Boucher, H. (in process). A systematic review of rhythm teaching approaches.
        Abstract

Boucher, H. (in process). For a cultural adaptation of the Kodaly approach for french Québécois: Part 2. The use of french rhythm speech cues.
        Abstract

Ryan, C., Boucher, H. and Ryan, G. (in process). Practice, Performance, and Anxiety: Impact and Student Perception of Parental
        Involvement and Musical Training.

        Abstract

Ryan, C., Boucher, H. and Ryan, G. (in process). Performance preparation, anxiety, and the teacher: experiences of adolescent pianists.
        Abstract

Héroux, I., Barbeau, A.-K., Boucher, H. (in process). The effects of the pandemic on music teaching in schools in Quebec (Canada).
        Abstract

mentor  

On Going Research Projects - Data Collection Completed

Boucher, H. (in process). The impact of friendship on peer assessment among undergraduate students.
        Abstract

Boucher, H. (in process). A qualitative inquiry of peer assessment among graduate students.
        Abstract

Boucher, H. and Moisey, T. (in process). Understanding musical development : A comparison of the musical compositions of 3rd, 9th, 11th graders and undergraduate
       university students.

        Abstract

Boucher, H. and Lee, J. (in process). Exploratory study of a formal musical education approach (Kodaly) in the context of lifelong learning.
        Abstract

 

On Going Research Projects

Boucher, H. et Gaudette-Leblanc, A. (in process). The contribution of the parent's participation in a program of musical activities in early childhood.
        Abstract

Boucher, H. et al.(in process). Recueil de chansons folkloriques pour l'enseignement de la musique au Québec selon la méthode Kodaly.
        Abstract

jeux

Boucher, H. et Ons, B.(in process). Étude des jeux musicaux de cours d’école au Québec : pour mieux comprendre l’éducation musicale informelle.
        Abstract

Boucher, H., Gaudette-Leblanc, A. et Raymond, J. (in process). The role of play in early childhood music education: A systematic review.
        Abstract


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Abstracts and Project Summaries

Gaudette-Leblanc, A., Bolduc, J., Bédard-Bruyère, F., Boucher, H., Pearson, J. and Tarabulsy, G.M. (Submitted to International Journal of Music in Early Childhood). Is
        participation in an early childhood music program related to children's socio-emotional development? A meta-analysis.

The impact of music training on developmental outcome has been demonstrated through systematic reviews with school-age children and adolescents but not in early childhood. However, music is increasingly recognized as having a social role, insofar as it is linked to emotional regulation and to early interactions in infancy and the preschool years. The goal of this meta-analysis to examine the association between participation in an early music program and indices of socio-emotional development in children under 5 years of age. Method: Studies were selected if they included participation in an early childhood music program and an assessment of the socio-emotional development of children under five. Results: Eight studies revealed a medium to large effect size (d = .67, p < .001). Effect size was moderated by type of assessment (observed versus reported) and the duration of the program. Conclusions: Results confirm a positive association between the participation to an early childhood music program and the socio-emotional development of young children.

Ryan, C., Boucher, H. et Ryan, G. (submitted to International Journal of Music Education). Children’s Feelings about Piano Performances
        Across a Year of Study.

Solo performance is a common experience for children learning to play an instrument, yet the research literature on these experiences is limited, with a focus on older children and adolescents. The purpose of the present study was to examine younger children’s feelings about performance over the course of a year of study. Forty-one children were interviewed about their piano lessons and performance experiences at the end of two consecutive semesters of study. They also responded to a pictorial scale on their feelings about performance at each interview and again at two piano recitals. Results indicate that children are remarkably consistent in their feelings about performing in piano recitals, with few significant changes over the measurement times and contexts. Correlation analyses indicate changes in the relationships between feelings about performance and certain study variables over time – in particular age, liking of lessons, liking of performing, practice time, and perception of being good at piano. Regression analysis in the fall term indicates that gender and age are significant predictors of feelings about performance, with younger children and boys feeling most positive. In the spring, the findings shift and the only significant predictor is children’s liking of piano lessons. Implications and directions for further research are discussed.
       

Héroux, I., Boucher, H., Tardif, C. et Barbeau, A.-K. (submitted to Revue musicale OICRM). Développement d'outils pour l’analyse des ressources numériques utilisées pour
        l’enseignement de la musique en contexte scolaire québécois pendant la pandémie.

The global health crisis of COVID19 has had many impacts on the education community who had to adapt its practices using a variety of digital resources. While the Quebec government has been wanting to improve the digital skills of teachers and students for several years, this transformation has taken place in an accelerated manner. To understand the use made of digital resources by music teachers in elementary and high school education during the pandemic, we have developed tools to analyze their usage. To do this, we first developed a typology to identify the nature of digital resources for music education. This constituted the first phase in the development of an operational-conceptual model allowing an understanding of the use of digital resources. This triangular-shaped model is made up of three poles, the resource, the teacher, and the learner, and helps to illustrate the fluid nature of the different relationships between these poles. This explanatory model can be extended to different disciplines as well as to different school systems.


       

Boucher, H., Héroux, I. et Barbeau, A.-K. (submitted to Revue musicale OICRM). Notes de terrain: Les impacts de la pandémie ​sur les pratiques en enseignement de la musique en
        contexte scolaire ​québécois.

Following the COVID19 pandemic, schools in Quebec had to close to limit social contact and thus control the transmission of the virus. In order to understand how music teaching was affected, we electronically surveyed 517 music teachers from different regions of Quebec. Our results allow us to observe the impacts of the first wave in the spring of 2020, notably on the transformation of teaching modalities, from an exclusively face-to-face practice, to a distance or bimodal system. Several difficulties identified were related to school organization, extra work, stress induced by fear, cumbersome health measures, increased time for planning of teaching and decreased motivation. The training offered by the institutions did not meet the needs of the teachers, who therefore turned to self-training, mutual aid and sharing among peers.


       

Boucher, H., Lierse, S. and Marzano, G. (soumis à Sustaining Creativity and the Arts in the Digital Age). A Dialogical View on R. Murray Schafer's Theories and Creative
       Approaches in 21st Century Music Education.

The World Economic forum has identified creativity as one of the top skills needed for the workforce by 2020. However, some organizations deem innovation and change too risky. It has been advocated that the arts become a more integral part of educational curricula to develop creativity as a transferable skill. A pioneer of teaching creativity is the Canadian composer Raymond Murray Schafer (b. 1933). He believes that the goals in music education should be broader and wholistic, looking beyond the classroom to build citizens in an ideal democracy. Schafer is also recognized for his innovative ways of teaching and learning music in the schools. He encourages children to explore how they can be the creators and to find sounds from unusual sources within their own environment. Schafer’s approaches to music education have been popular, especially during the 1970s and 1980s when they were used around the world. The paper discusses how Schafer’s approaches to music education can be applied in today’s technological era to develop a highly creative workforce. It is anchored in a Bakhtinian dialogism framework as well as in Vygotsky's socio-constructivist theory. The aim of this research is to use and update an existing and successful twentieth-century philosophy of music education in the digital age as a way to provide an innovative approach to creativity that may now reach a wider audience through digital communication. As a result, a dialogical model of creativity through time emerges, in which the past and the future are interlocked and revolve around the axis of the present, and in which there are neither first nor last words.

 

piano

Ryan, C., Boucher, H. and Ryan, G. (2021). Performance preparation, anxiety, and the teacher: experiences of adolescent pianists. Revue musicale
       OICRM
, 8(1), 53-77.

The purpose of this study was to examine the experiences of adolescent pianists in their private lessons and solo performances in regards to concert preparation and music performance anxiety (MPA). A particular focus was placed on the student-teacher relationship and the potential role of teachers in students’ preparation, experience, and anxiety in performance situations. Sixty-two piano students completed questionnaires pertaining to their private lessons, teacher, and performance experiences, as well as two inventories—one pertaining to self-esteem and the other on music performance anxiety. Results indicate that self-esteem and practice are significant predictors of MPA, with self-esteem having the most notable effect. Almost half of the participants reported feeling nervous in their lessons at least some of the time. Most students noted that their teachers encourage them to perform; however, only half reported that their teachers address performance preparation issues. Less than half were reported to discuss memorization strategies or management of MPA with students, or to hold practice-performance classes. Implications for music educators and future research directions are discussed.

 

Boucher, H., Gaudette-Leblanc, A., Raymond, J. et Peters, V. (2020). Musical learning as a contributing factor in the development of socio-emotional competence in
       children aged 4-5: An exploratory study in a naturalistic context. Early Child Development and Care, 1-17.

Research has shown that young children’s socio-emotional development may benefit from participating in a music programme. In this study, we explored the association between participation in a general music programme and the development of socio-emotional skills in relation to the duration of the programme. Children aged 4 and 5 (N=50), from a low socio-economic neighbourhood, participated in an 8- or 15-week music programme. Children’s social skills development and emotion comprehension were measured. Teachers reported an increase in the social interaction and independence skills scores of the younger children and a decrease in the cooperation skills scores of the older children. Additionally, the older children showed an increase in their comprehension of emotions. The duration of the programme, however, did not yield any significant effect. Results suggest that the association between participation in a music programme and the development of social-emotional skills may be influenced by the age of the children.

 

Boucher, H. and Moisey, T. (2019). A lived experience of a philosophy of music education inspired by the work of Canadian composer R. Murray Shafer. Creative
       Education
, 10(10), 2111-2131. http://dx.doi.org/DOI:10.4236/ce.2019.1010153

Schafer

In the field of philosophy of music education, two major views have taken most of the space in the last decades. One of them is the aesthetic vision, a view that Benet Reimer (1970; 2003) made a major contribution to, and the other one, developed by David Elliot, is the praxialist view. These two positions have generated a lot of discussion about how we perceive music education. In fact, in the aesthetic vision, the work of art is at the center of the whole process. The quality of the work, and the education of the feelings, is believed to lead to the aesthetic experience. Therefore, the education of music puts lots of emphasis on the teaching of how to listen to music. In the praxialist approach, the central element is the individual and the different roles, musicer and listener, he or she has when interacting with music in its context. In recent years, other contributors have elaborated different views on the topic (Jorgensen, 1997; Wheeler, 2006), enriching the collective reflection in this field.

Jorgensen (1997), in her dialectic philosophy, talks about the difficult choice of creating a philosophy and then trying to apply it in the classroom, or being in the classroom and from that experience, generating a philosophical perspective. She explains how both ways can have their strengths and limits. One element that seems to be missing from these enriching conversations however, is the actual ‘lived philosophy of music education’ and the documentation and analysis of such an experience. This is where the work of R. Murry Shafer can be an interesting starting point and certainly make a valid contribution.

Canadian Composer R. Murray Schafer

The goal of this qualitative inquiry was to explore how pre-service teachers could be introduced to a philosophy of music education through a ‘lived’ experience of it. The project emerged from an invitation to participate in an arts education collaborative exploration involving McGill University Faculty of Education, the Montreal Museum of Fine Arts, and local partner schools:

"We are interested in exploring the ways in which “The Space Between” encompasses the notion of that which we do not see or feel directly, but which is imbedded within the human experience across the globe. Participants are invited to develop projects inspired by this common theme, which may serve as our connecting thread throughout this creative process."   For more information regarding the exhibit, you can watch this video: The Space Between.

Our project named ‘Soundscape II – A follow up experience to R. Murray Schafer’s Soundscapes’, involved student-teachers enrolled in a music education program and generalist student-teachers (having done an introductory course on music teaching). These student-teachers were also doing their final field experience within the same semester. This is how the project was described:

"In contemporary philosophy of music education, the child is in “the place between” as a mediator, by the roles he/she plays: performer, listener, creator. The importance is in how he/she lives these experiences and develops these competencies. The work of art is no longer the central piece, it is now the individual in context that is central. I am proposing a philosophical experience in action using the work of R. Murray Shafer as an inspiration. Shafer, a well-known Canadian composer, wrote many books about music education and spent much time working in schools. He developed this concept called Soundscape, where all sounds in an environment can become part of the music that surrounds us. He created activities to “clean up” the ears (to learn to listen) and to compose new soundscapes. As mentioned earlier, the child’s experience of the music competencies included in our curriculum (to create, to interpret and to appreciate) is often an invisible space. This project wants to make visible this space where the philosophy encounters the reality.

In class, activity 1: The student-teachers were asked to lead listening activities in the classroom following Shafer’s model. These activities were done through a visual representation of the sound of music heard.
In class, activity 2: This was then be followed by creative experiences of the children’s soundscapes, which were also notated visually using a code invented by the child-composer. They were then be performed for the class who “read” the musical soundscapes.
Museum Presentation: A selection of the visual representations of the compositions were part of the exhibit for the visitors to see, and videorecordings of these were made available for them to hear and see the soundscapes."

The Shafer Project was chosen and became part of the exhibit. As the project was unfolding, it became clear that we had to document the whole process and try to get an understanding of what it can mean for student-teachers to ‘live’ a philosophy of music education rather than just be presented with different views in a typical university course mostly through lectures and readings. Several types of data were collected. In the first phase, there were:
• videos of the lesson taught by one of the researchers to the student-teachers experiencing Shafer’s ideas,
• visual representations and musical soundscapes done by the student-teachers,
• explanations of the student-teachers’ visual representations and how they relate to their musical soundscapes,
• short questionnaires filled up by the student-teachers commenting on their experience of that music lesson.

In the second phase, three music specialist student-teachers taught the same lesson to the students they were working with during their field experience. Students from different grade levels took part in the project - grades 3, 9 and 11. From this, the following data were collected:
• videos of the lesson taught by student-teachers to the children while they were experiencing Shafer’s ideas,
• visual representations and musical soundscapes done by the children,
• explanation of the children`s visual representations and how they relate to their musical soundscapes,
• questionnaires filled up by the student-teachers commenting on their experience teaching that music lesson and their understanding of Shafer's philosophy of music education.

As we started to work on the project some questions were present and some emerged as the project progressed and we started to analyze the data. Prior to the project, the question was: Does introducing a philosophy of music education through a lived experience of it rather than through a theoretical presentation bring the same level of understanding? The questions that have additionaly emerged are: Can student-teachers construct their own understanding of a philosophy of music education after having experienced it from the perspective of a student and of a teacher? What is music, how can we define it? How does learning about a philosophy of music education influence their future teaching? Our analysis is anchored in the theoretical framework developed by Kolb and Kolb (2005), the Experiential Learning Theory (ELT).

summer

Visual Representation of a Musical Soundscape
by Undergraduate Students, titled "Summer in the Playground".

 

Primeau, D. et Boucher, H. (2019). Quête d’une épistémologie pour l’enseignement et la recherche.Canadian Music Educator, 60(4): 21-26.

For graduate and senior undergraduate students, situating their teaching and research in an epistemological framework can be an arduous step, but essential to establishing consistency in their approach. This article presents a case study aimed at documenting the process of developing an epistemology for teaching and research, as experienced by a doctoral student in music education. The work she completed as part of her courses on the philosophy of teaching and research, as well as her testimony, constituted the data used for this analysis. The student also took part in the study as a co-investigator leading to a collaborative approach to complete, clarify and better understand the data. An evolution in the development of the participant's epistemology was observed, both as a teacher and as a researcher, moving from an empiricist approach to a position in the paradigm of pragmatism. We also noted that she is at the beginning of a process of developing her competences with regard to epistemology and research methods and that certain concepts remain to be clarified. Finally, despite some challenges, she remains positive about the usefulness of this process, seeing gains in terms of coherence and values that underlie her practice. Since few researchers have examined these questions, the documentation of this process could help normalizing this experience for students, while allowing supervisors to understand better their students’ need for support.

 

Boucher, H. (2019). For a cultural adaptation of the Kodaly approach for French Québécois including the use of the fixed do system. Canadian Music Educator, 60 (3), 14-22.

KodalyStudents

 

Kodaly developed a very structured, sequenced method of music education. With the help of his students, this approach was exported to many countries in the world, reaching a high number of teachers and students. As it became known by people from different countries, a challenge arose: each of these locations has a unique musical culture. Kodaly was well aware of this reality and encouraged the music teachers to use music from their own culture, which he perceived as being the musical mother language of the children. Through this article, it will be argued that the use of the moveable Do or fixed Do system is also a cultural element and therefore, that music teachers should adapt Kodaly’s vision to it.

Musical culture and its role in society will first be discussed, followed by a brief history of the fixed Do systems and how it was adopted by French Québécois. Then a critical look will be taken at published articles identifying strengths and weaknesses inherent to each system, followed by a presentation of the data-based studies comparing the effectiveness of the two systems. Finally, an adaptation specific to Francophones in Québec of the Kodaly approach within the culture of the fixed do system will be presented along with the steps needed to make it available to as many children as possible.

 

Boucher, H. and Ryan, C. (2011). Performance Stress and the Very Young Musician. Journal of Research in Music Education, 58(4), pp. 329-345.

Boucher, H. (2009). The Occurrence of Performance Anxiety in Early Childhood. Proceedings of the Second International Conference of Students of Systematic
        Musicology
, pp. 32-33

Boucher, H. (2008). The Occurrence of Performance Anxiety in Early Childhood. (Doctoral Dissertation). McGill University, Montreal.

Performance anxiety is a common experience among musicians. Recent studies have found it to be an issue not only for adult performers but also for developing musicians as early as third grade. The question as to its developed or innate nature led to the present inquiry pertaining to young children’s responses to performance situations. Sixty-six 3- and 4-year-olds taking group music lessons that culminated in two concerts served as participants. Self-report of anticipatory anxiety, cortisol secretion, and observation of anxious behaviors were the primary measures.

pictorial scale

 

Results indicated that young children did experience anxiety with respect to music performances and that responses seemed to have both innate and developed components. Children with prior performing experience reported less anticipatory anxiety, but had higher cortisol levels, than those without prior experience. Additionally, performance location seemed to play a role in children’s anxiety responses. Those who were familiar with their performance environment responded with less anxiety than those who were not. Overall, second performances within a short time frame elicited much lower anxiety responses than initial performances. Findings pertaining to performance location and second performances appear to have direct pedagogical implications, which may help to reduce performance stress in young children.

     

Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence, Reported Liking and
Reported Feeling Toward Concert.
I feel good in my body when I think of my concert. /
I feel funny in my belly when I think of my concert.

 
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Book Chapters

   

Gaudette-Leblanc, A., Raymond, J. et Boucher, H. (2019). L’éducation musicale au préscolaire: Données issues de la recherche et idées pédagogiques. Dans I. Deshaies et
        J.-M. Mirond (dir.), Tisserands d'enfance: le développement de l'élève de 4-5 ans. Montréal : Les Éditions JFD.

Kinder

Music education in preschool has become a must. Daily, the majority of teachers use music during routine activities and during transitions to support the development of children's social and academic skills (Gillespie and Glider, 2010; Ritblatt, Longstreth, Hokoda, Cannon and Weston, 2013). In this regard, the results of numerous research suggest that the regular practice of musical activities contributes to the overall development of children (Dumont, Syurina, Feron, and van Hooren, 2017). For example, to date, numerous studies carried out with preschool children have indicated that rhythmic activities would be favorable for the development of language skills (Degé and Schwarzer, 2011; Frischen, Schwarzer and Degé, 2019) in addition to promoting the adoption of prosocial behaviors (Kirschner and Tomasello, 2010; Tunçgenç and Cohen, 2018; Wan and Fu, 2019).
Moreover, the practice of musical activities seems to be appreciated and sought after by children. Indeed, despite the era of new technologies in which we are evolving, it is still common to observe children initiating themselves to singing games in the playgrounds, alleys and summer camps (Brodsky and Sulkin, 2011 ; Veblen, Kruse, Messenger and Letain, 2018). These musical games (songs, hand games) are part of the heritage present in many cultures. They offer children the opportunity to repeat the same activities several times, allowing them to feel pleasure, improve and experience success. The commitment and the joy which arouse by the integration of this active practice of music, in a playful context, make it a particularly attractive and an effective educational tool (Koops, 2017).
For all these reasons, it seems essential to encourage the practice of music in preschool. The objective of this chapter is to highlight the ways in which the skills related to each of the spheres of global development (cognitive, language, motor, emotional, social) are put into action during different musical activities. The pages of this chapter highlight the knowledge acquired by research on this subject in recent years. To illustrate this, concrete activities to experiment in class are proposed.

 
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Music Pedagogy Tools

Boucher, H. et Couture, J. (In process). Recueil musical et pédagogique pour le réseau choral des écoles québécoises. Alliance Chorale du Québec.
        https://www.chorales.ca/fr/rceq-recueil-musical-et-pedagogique

This musical and educational collection is specially designed for each cycle of the elementary school. In connection with the provincial education program, this collection highlights music in French through educational, fun and effective suggestions. In addition, this ready to use collection greatly facilitates the search for repertoire for choir conductors in schools. The collection features folk songs and composed songs from the past and the present. In order to promote listening and musical development, playful proposals are offered to gradually integrate polyphony, whether through rhythmic or melodic ostinatos, canons or partner songs. The collection will be updated regularly by enriching the repertoire as well as by adding sections of songs on classical themes and songs illustrating the multiculturalism of Quebec.

       

Publications in Professional Journals

Boucher, H. (2021). A review of Kodály-inspired education and Indigineous people in Canada and beyond in the Bulletin of the International Kodály Society. Alla Breve, 45, 7-14.

The Kodály Society of Canada (KSC) is embracing the Truth and Reconciliation calls to action put forward by the Truth and Reconciliation Commission and the Federal Government of Canada. In doing so, KSC has welcomed recommendations offered by Senator Murray Sinclair, Chief Commissioner, who led the process from 2007 to 2015 (Government of Canada, 2020). Therefore, part of the KSC’s Who We Are statement reads as follows: “The Canadian music classroom must also be a place where truth and reconciliation with Canada’s Indigenous peoples is honoured, explored and developed” (Kodály Society of Canada, 2019). As the extent to which First Nation, Inuit and Métis peoples in Canada suffer from unfair treatment in our society became clearer, curiosity emerged as to how this was addressed by the Kodály movement over the years. At first, the intention was to simply survey this literature as it focused on the Indigenous people and cultures of Canada. As the search process progressed, due to the limited number of articles found, articles addressing Indigenous people of different geographical areas and articles whose primary focus was elsewhere but that mentioned native people were identified. In other articles, the absence of such mention was deemed of interest and so these too were included. This article therefore identifies the articles that were published in the Bulletin of the International Kodály Society, from 1976 to 2020, in relation to Indigenous people in of Canada and beyond. First, the search and analysis method is presented, then a summary of the content of each selected article follows. Finally, reflections for the future of the Kodály-inspired pedagogy are discussed.

 

Gaudette-Leblanc, A., Boucher, H. et Duval, S. (2021). Faire de la musique… un jeu d’enfant! Revue préscolaire, 59(1), 58-59.

Le jeu musical comprend les activités musicales initiées par l’enfant, alors qu’il explore les sons de façon volontaire, en jouant seul ou accompagné (Marsh et Young, 2015). Ce type de jeu revêt une place importante à l’éducation préscolaire, car il fait appel à de nombreuses habiletés de l’enfant, soutenant ainsi les apprentissages et le développement global de celui-ci. Cette chronique vise d’abord à établir les situations dans lesquelles on peut observer et soutenir le jeu musical de l’enfant et à préciser les différents rôles pouvant être joués par l’enseignante lors de celles-ci. Elle présente ensuite un exemple de jeu musical en classe, suivi de quelques idées de situations d’apprentissage et de développement y étant liées.

 

Ricard, J. et Boucher, H. (2021). L’enseignement de la formation auditive : quelle approche choisir? Musique et pédagogie, 35(2), 17-21.

Dans l’éducation musicale de tradition occidentale, il est généralement admis que la formation auditive est une part importante de l’apprentissage de la musique, particulièrement pour les apprenti(e)s instrumentistes et chanteur(-euse)s. Les cursus musicaux des écoles préparatoires, conservatoires, cégeps et universités incluent ainsi d’emblée les cours de formation auditive, aussi appelés solfège et dictée. On peut cependant observer un éclectisme dans les diverses institutions, autant du point de vue des approches utilisées que dans les objectifs visés. Comme le stipulent différents auteurs, les enseignant(e)s de formation auditive ont tendance à perpétuer les pratiques qu’ils ont connues en tant qu’élèves et à adopter la même approche que leurs professeur(e)s. En tant qu’enseignant(e)s, il semble important de briser ce cycle et d’avoir une meilleure compréhension des différentes approches pédagogiques existantes en formation auditive afin de faire des choix éclairés. Cet article vise donc à présenter certains écrits traitant de l’éducation de l’oreille pour les musicien(ne)s en formation afin de comprendre comment s’articulent les diverses approches pédagogiques dans cette matière.

 

Boucher, H. (2021). Le coin Kodály. Les séquences pédagogiques. Musique et pédagogie, 35(3), 22-26.

La pédagogie musicale inspirée par le travail de Zoltan Kodály met l’accent sur la valorisation de l’expérience musicale vocale dès la toute petite enfance. L’apprentissage des différents concepts musicaux étant également au cœur de cette approche, différents outils éducatifs furent développés et expérimentés pour soutenir l’enseignement. Parmi ceux-ci, la mise en place d’une séquence pédagogique fut élaborée en fonction du développement naturel des enfants et de leur capacité à apprendre les différentes composantes musicales. Séquencer ainsi les contenus s’applique évidemment aux savoirs enseignés, mais également au répertoire que l’enseignant choisit d’utiliser. Cette approche est également utilisée pour l’enseignement du chant collectif, tant en classe qu’en parascolaire. Cet article présente d’abord une séquence possible pour l’enseignement des savoirs musicaux en contexte scolaire québécois francophone, suivie d’une séquence structurant l’apprentissage du chant à plusieurs voix.

 

Boucher, H. (2021). Le coin Kodály. La créativité dans la pédagogie Kodály. Musique et pédagogie, 35(2).

La créativité n’est heureusement plus considérée aujourd’hui comme l’apanage exclusif d'un petit nombre de gens talentueux. Elle est perçue comme inhérente à la personnalité humaine. Par conséquent, le développement et l'éducabilité de la créativité sont également devenus des sujets auxquels les enseignants doivent s’intéresser. Dans le programme de formation de l’école québécoise (Gouvernement du Québec, 2006), inventer/créer est une trois compétences des programmes en enseignement des arts. Dans la pédagogie développée par Zoltan Kodály et ses collaborateurs, la création a une place de choix. En effet, cette approche implique bien davantage que de chanter des ti-ti ta, comme le croit encore malheureusement certains. Pour Kodály, la créativité est intrinsèque à chaque enfant. « Fredonner est un moyen d'expression des plus naturels pour les jeunes enfants, de plus leur façon naturelle de s’exprimer est également très proche du chant » (Kodály cité dans Forrai et Kalmár, 1984). Dans cette vision, l’éducation à la création se fera d’abord par la quantité et la qualité de musique à laquelle les élèves auront été exposés. Les élèves ont donc en premier lieu besoin de posséder un répertoire de sons - mélodies, rythmes et harmonies - avant de pouvoir canaliser leur potentiel créatif. Plus que cela, comme le dit Christopher Azzara: « L’objectif est de connaitre la musique, de la posséder de la même manière que l'on s’est approprié la langue, en la parlant » (p. 21-25). La pédagogie Kodály suggère six aspects musicaux principaux à partir desquels développer la créativité chez nos élèves : d’abord de façon inconsciente par le chant, puis par des activités de mouvements, ensuite par le texte, le rythme, la mélodie et l’harmonie (Johnson, 2004). Dans cette chronique, ces six éléments seront présentés et illustrés par différents exemples. Mais d'abord, comment mettre en place les premiers pas vers une créativité éduquée, soit l’exposition à la musique comme un apprentissage non conscient de la structure grammaticale de ce langage.

 

Boucher, H. (2020). Le coin Kodály. Le jeu dans la pédagogie Kodály : pour le plaisir d’apprendre la musique. Musique et pédagogie, 35(1), 7–10.

Pour tout éducateur utilisant les principes éducatifs de l’approche Kodály, la joie suscitée par la découverte de la musique est extrêmement importante. Selon la Liszt Academy Kodály Institute, notre première tâche est « d’enseigner la musique et le chant à l'école de telle façon que ce ne soit pas une torture, mais une joie pour l'élève; de lui insuffler une soif pour la musique, une soif qui durera toute sa vie ». Une des activités musicales permettant de faire vivre l’apprentissage de la musique dans la joie et le plaisir est sans aucun doute le jeu musical. Cette chronique présentera une théorie construite sur un continuum de différents types de jeux, le tout illustré par des exemples de jeux musicaux, accompagnés de leur application pédagogique.
       

Boucher, H. (2020). Le coin Kodály. Chantez, chantez et chantez encore ! Musique et pédagogie, 34(3), 8-13.

L’organisation des éducateurs Kodály américains identifie les éléments essentiels de la pédagogie Kodalienne comme suit : 1) l’importance du chant, 2) l’importance des chansons folkloriques, 3) l’utilisation de la solmisation relative, 4) l’utilisation de la musique de qualité, 5) le développement du musicien complet et 6) l’usage d’une séquence pédagogique (OAKE, 2020). Vous aurez remarqué que l’élément figurant tout en haut de la liste est l’importance du chant. Contrairement à d’autres approches - où le jeu instrumental est davantage ou d’égale importance - dans la pédagogie inspirée par Zoltan Kodály, le chant est vraiment considéré comme l’outil pédagogique musical par excellence. Dans cet article, je présenterai de quelle façon le chant est inhérent à cette approche et j’aborderai certains des défis qui peuvent se présenter, notamment celui de motiver les garçons à chanter et celui du manque de formation vocale des musiciens éducateurs. De plus, je vous exposerai certaines des stratégies pédagogiques utilisées par les éducateurs Kodály pour enseigner la musique par le chant.
       

Boucher, H. (2020). Le coin Kodály. Pourquoi la méthode Kodály dans l'enseignement de la musique? Musique et pédagogie, 34(2), 19–22.

Depuis les années 60, différents musiciens-éducateurs ont travaillé à incorporer l’usage de la méthode Kodály dans les écoles publiques au Québec. Dans la foulée du rapport Parent sur l’éducation, un rapport spécial portant sur l’enseignement de la musique dans la province de Québec (Deslauriers, 1968) voit le jour. Il est fait de nombreuses recommandations, plusieurs d’entre elles portant sur l’utilisation de la méthode Kodály au préscolaire et au primaire :
- Qu’on impose à tous, dès le niveau préscolaire, une initiation musicale essentiellement à base d’éducation rythmique et de chant choral, en s’inspirant des meilleurs éléments des méthodes Jaques-Dalcroze, Martenot, Orff-Bergese et surtout Kodály.
- Ceci dit, et tout en me gardant de toute exclusive en un domaine où les spécialistes sont loin d’être d’accord, je souhaite qu’on s’emploie sérieusement à tirer chez nous tout le parti possible de la méthode Kodály, mentionnée à propos du préscolaire, mais qui a été précisément conçue pour les écoles élémentaires.
- Au niveau élémentaire, qu’on impose à tous un enseignement à base de chant choral et de danse proprement dite. Qu’on offre à tous l’apprentissage d’un instrument de leur choix, au moment jugé opportun par des maîtres qualifiés. Qu’on utilise à ce niveau les méthodes internationales reconnues, en particulier celle de Kodály, en les complétant et en les corrigeant les unes par les autres, le cas échéant.
Ces recommandations, comme tant d’autres en enseignement des arts, demeurent à être mises en application dans notre système scolaire. Certains défis inhérents à la méthode KodalyKodály, tel l’usage de la solmisation relative, ont sans doute rendu son application plus difficile qu’il ne l’avait été anticipé. Depuis un certain nombre d’années, j’apporte ma contribution pour faire connaître davantage les forces de cette méthode et pour l’adapter au contexte du Québec francophone . Le texte suivant expliquera d’abord pourquoi cette méthode est encore utilisée dans de nombreux pays aujourd’hui, présentera qui était Kodály, comment s’est développée sa vision et ce qui la compose.  

Boucher, H. (2019). Ressources de chansons folkloriques en français/French Folksong Resource. Alla Breve, 43, 10-14.

folklore

The Kodaly method has flourished in several countries since its very beginnings in Hungary. One of its particularities is, of course, the use of a sequence of rhythmic, melodic and harmonic material. Another of these features is the use of children’s songs and folk songs from the child's culture. In francophone countries, two tangents are observable with regard to the chosen sequence. We find the diatonic sequence beginning with the teaching of do-re-mi and the pentatonic sequence with sol-mi-la. These two sequences are used in different Francophone communities and require different song resources. The purpose of this article is to provide you with different books and websites that fit into either of these sequences allowing you to explore them to meet your specific needs. In addition, if your teaching is conducted in English and you want to use songs in French, you can also take inspiration from this material and integrate it into the sequence you use.

 

Gaudette-Leblanc, A. and Boucher, H. (2018). La pratique de la musique en classe de maternelle 4 ans. Données issues de la recherche et recommandations.
        Revue préscolaire
, 56(4).

In 2018, as part of the Quebec Policy on Educational Success, 111 new full-time 4-year kindergarten classes in disadvantaged areas were introduced. Recently, recommendations from research that examined the effectiveness of this measure suggest that it would be necessary to enrich the Québec Education Program (preschool - 4 years) by providing concrete examples of programs and activities supporting the overall development of the 4-year-old child. It is also proposed to better equip the educators and teachers to be entrusted to these children by offering them continuing education activities based on the best practices in education. In this sense, this column aims first to inform education professionals of the positive effects of music on the development of the child at the time of his/her first school transition. We additionaly suggest some musical activities that can help the preschool child through this adaptation period.


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Articles in writing

 

Gaudette-Leblanc, A., Bolduc, J., Bédard-Bruyère, F., Boucher, H., Pearson, J., Cirelli, L. and Tarabulsy, G.M. (in process). Do short-term musical interactions promote social behaviors in children? A systematic review.

The quality of interactions between a parent and his or her child greatly influences the child's attachment security and development. More specifically, sensitive and warm parenting practices would be associated with the development of a secure attachment relationship and the child's social adjustment (Goodman, Newton and Thompson, 2012). Nevertheless, the development of a secure attachment relationship seems less likely in social risk contexts characterized by low parental education, low income, marital conflict and lone-parenthood (Cyr, Euser, Bakermans-Kranenburg and van IJzendoorn, 2010). Thus, several researchers are questioning the intervention strategies to be implemented in the community in order to support the quality of interactions and the emergence of safer attachment within these families.

To date, various psychosocial intervention programs to promote the adoption of more sensitive parental behaviours have been designed and implemented in the home (Berlin, Zaenah and Lieberman, 2016;). Short-term attachment-based home intervention appears to improve the caregiver's sensitivity, increase attachment security and contribute to the child's social development (Moss, Dubois-Comtois, Cyr, Tarabulsy and Bernier, 2011; Moss, Tarabulsy, Dubois-Comtois, Cyr, Bernier and St-Laurent, 2018). In these interventions, after a brief discussion on child attachment and development, according to the child's age and needs, the intervener suggests activities to encourage affiliation and reciprocity within the dyad. Then, in order to increase parents' ability to observe their children's reaction during the interaction, a video feedback on the parent-child interaction is provided. The use of nursery rhymes, peek-a-boo and songs games are part of the suggested activities. These musical activities may be an opportunity to observe the development of the sensitivity of the primary caregiver (Vlimas, Malloch & Burnham, 2013). Nevertheless, it is likely that practitioners in the field of attachment are not aware of the litterature concerning the contribution of musical interactions on the quality of parent-child interactions and on their impact on the children's social behaviours. Although it has been suggested that musical practices at home can nurture the relationship between parent and child and that this can have consequences on the child's social development (Trehub, 2019), it seems necessary to specify in which conditions this may be the case. This theoretical article aims to aswer to this gap. First, a systematic review of the litterature will inform practitioners about the current knowledge on this subject. This will be followed by a discussion that aims to clarify the context in which home music practice has been studied to date and to suggest new avenues for research in the field of social science.

 

Boucher, H. (in process). A qualitative inquiry into mentoring as a teaching tool for training preservice music teachers in early childhood settings.

Experiences of preservice music teachers are well documented. So are experiences of early childhood preservice educators. However, it seems that the first experiences of music teachers in early childhood settings are just starting to be examined (Gruenhagen, 2012; Scott-Kassner, 1999; Nardo et al., 2006; Neelly, 2000). Although music is part of daily routines of young children, it might have been left in the hands of the early childhood educators for years. In our day, many educational settings hire music specialists to work with young children. Although no formal certification is required to become an early childhood music teacher (Gruenhagen, 2012), more programs in higher education now offer specific training to teach music to preschoolers (Scott-Kassner, 1999). Still, most bachelor of music education degrees focus solely on elementary and high school music education. In this context, an important part of learning to teach and interact with such young children has been done in the past through unprepared practice since there was no formal training available. However, since there is more and more demand on the work scene for trained music educators to work with children 1 to 5 years old, there is a need to look at the first experiences of the preservice music teacher in early childhood music teaching and how formal training and mentoring can be part of an overall education. Renshaw (2009) offers a very detailed framework to understand mentoring in music that includes an effective environment for mentoring, characteristics of reflective and reflexive interactions and qualities of effective mentors. This framework has been used by Gaunt, Creech, Long & Hallam (2012) to study how conservatory music students could be supported in their professional integration. They found that the student-teacher relationship generated key characteristics of a mentoring environment and that the students appreciated a mentoring approach.

earlychildhoodThe purpose of this study is:
1) to document the experiences of preservice music teachers in early childhood music teaching under mentorship. The participants are enrolled in an undergraduate music education or performance program, have taken many education courses among which is a course titled “Music in Early Childhood”. In this class, students have been introduced to various techniques to teach young children, have been presented with pedagogical material, have learned about the global development of the child, have seen many examples of different teachers with varied age groups and have themselves taught one lesson in an early childhood setting.
2) to examine the nature of mentoring among preservice early childhood music teachers and to determine whether it could function as professional development in that context. The mentoring is to be explored from the perspective of the students and the mentor.

The research questions that are being addressed in this study are inspired by a case study that analyzed the experiences of an early childhood music teacher who was learning through practice, within a learning community (Gruenhagen, 2012) as well as the research done with conservatory students about mentoring (Gaunt, Creech, Long & Hallam, 2012). Therefore, two points of view are being examined: the student-teachers’ experience and how it could influence them in a broader context, and the mentor's experience and how mentoring could be a successful educational tool.

This case study (three participants) is using ethnographic tools as it seems the best way to provide information on this experience. To do so, the student teachers (participants) taught lessons to children aged 1 to 5 years old and their parents, the lessons were videotaped and these videos were viewed and commented by the mentor-researcher, and the written comments were given to the teacher-students as a weekly feedback. The student-teachers met individually with the mentor three times during the seven-week process: before the start of the program, after their fourth lesson and at the end of the program. These mentoring sessions took the form of conversations/interviews and participants were invited to talk about their experience and ask for guidance if needed. The student-teachers were also offered the possibility to communicate through email with the mentor at any point in time for sharing their experience or to ask questions. The experience of the mentor was documented through journaling about her experience. The videos, the feedback, the interviews, the emails, and the mentor journal are being coded and analyzed.

 

Boucher, H. (in process).A systematic review of rhythm teaching approaches.

rhythm

Music educators’ tasks include rhythm teaching, no matter the age group they are working with. Many approaches are available for teachers to structure their teaching, among which the traditional counting system, the rhythm syllables, the speech cues and the use of rhythmic words. The goals of this article are to offer to music educators a systematic analysis of the published research comparing a minimum of two different approaches to teach music rhythms and to identify the significant results in terms of best effective practices.

To identify as many relevant publications as possible, several databases were searched: ERIC (EBSCO), Education Full Text (H.W. Wilson), PsycINFO, JSTOR, FRANCIS, WorldCat. A search of the gray litterature was also conducted through: ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global, Erudit, Thesis Canada, Open Access to Thesis and Dissertations (on line). The following key words were used to execute these search: 'rhythm music', 'rhythm reading', 'rhythm teaching', 'music rhythm words', 'rhythm syllables', 'Kodaly', 'Gordon music', 'Takadimi', 'music sight reading'. Every study found was then hand search for other publications that might have been missed with the above search.

The methods mostly studied are the traditional “l-e-and-a”, Kodaly, Gordon, Takadimi and speech cues. Most of the research found used a quasi-experimental methodology with or without control group. However, very few were comparable in regards to methodology, subjects and measures. Moreover, most of them did not compare the same methods of rhythmic teaching, making a meta-analysis impossible. Whenever sufficient data was provided, effect size was calculated using Cohen’s d analysis. Even though the studies found compare different systems together, a few elements are worth noting. The first is the effectiveness of the Speech Cues method. This approach is characterised by a set of words that are systematically associated with a rhythmical element. The second element that needs to be underlined is that the traditional method of counting “l-e-and-a” seems to be the least efficient one.

 

Boucher, H. (in process). For a cultural adaptation of the Kodaly approach for french Québécois: Part 2. The use of french rhythm speech cues.

This second part of our cultural appropriation of the Kodaly approach will focus on the rhythmic elements. Kodaly adopted the idea of rhythm syllables, matching the actual rhythm sounds of the notation. His vision was developed after the French Galin-Paris-Chevé (Varley, 2005; Chosky, 1999). The details of this invention will be presented in the historical section below. Choksy (1999) talks about the Kodaly tools as being the moveable do solfa, the rhythm syllables and the hand signs. When it comes to teaching rhythm, it seems that a tool that matches the rhythmical sounds is the essential nature of Kodaly’s idea. Nowadays, different Kodaly trainings use different techniques to teach about rhythm (traditional syllables, adapted syllables, beat-based Gordon or Takadimi). This article will first present the historical development of rhythmic teaching with a focus on how it happened in France. Then the strengths and limits of each techniques will be presented, followed by an analysis of experimental research articles comparing the effectiveness of these tools. Finally, the culturally and highly spread Speech Cues use in Québec will be introduced, as well as the reasons for their valid usage.

Ryan, C., Boucher, H. and Ryan, G. (in process). Practice, Performance, and Anxiety: Impact and Student Perception of Parental
        Involvement and Musical Training

The purpose of the present study was to examine the role of parents’ involvement and musical background in young musicians’ experience of performance anxiety. Specifically, research questions explored were: 1) Does student perception of parental involvement in practice and performance preparation impact upon their experience of performance anxiety? 2) Is parents’ prior training in music related to student performance anxiety? 3) Is student self-esteem stemming from the parent-child relationship and/or overall self-esteem related to student performance anxiety? 4) What do students perceive to be the ways in which parents impact upon or are involved in students’ participation in music lessons, practice, and future plans?

 

piano

Ryan, C., Boucher, H. and Ryan, G.Performance preparation, anxiety, and the teacher: experiences of adolescent pianists.

The purpose of this study was to examine the experiences and anxiety of adolescent pianists in their private lessons and solo performances. A particular focus was placed on the student-teacher relationship and the potential role of teachers in students’ preparation, experience, and anxiety in performance situations. Sixty-two piano students completed questionnaires pertaining to their private lessons, teacher, and performance experiences, as well as two inventories – one pertaining to self-esteem and the other on music performance anxiety.

Results indicate that gender, self-esteem, practice, and years of study are significant predictors of performance anxiety, with gender having the most notable effect. Almost half of the participants reported feeling nervous in their lessons at least some of the time. Most students noted that their teachers encourage them to perform; however, only half reported that their teachers address performance preparation issues. Less than half were reported to discuss memorization strategies or performance anxiety with students, or to hold practice-performance classes. Implications for music educators and future research directions are discussed.

 

Héroux, I., Barbeau, A.-K., Boucher, H. (en cours). The effects of the pandemic on music teaching in schools in Quebec (Canada) in the spring and fall 2020

With the desire to better understand the consequences of the pandemic in Quebec, Canada, we surveyed elementary and high school music teachers. The purpose of this research was to describe the effects of the pandemic on music teaching in schools in the spring and fall 2020. Our research objectives were in three folds: 1) to describe changes in music teaching in elementary and high school during the first wave of the pandemic in the spring 2020, and during the fall 2020, 2) to report music teachers’ perceptions in relation to planification, motivation, and students’ involvement during the pandemic in the spring 2020, and during the fall 2020, and 3) to analyse analyze the use of, and training in, digital resources by music teachers during the pandemic in relation to the modes of teaching (on on-site, online and bimodal) in the spring 2020.


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On Going Research Projects - Data Collection Completed

Boucher, H. (in process). The impact of friendship on peer assessment among undergraduate students.

Since Vygotsky’s major contribution, i.e. socio-constructivism in education, peer assessment has become a way of supporting students’ responsibility for their own learning and the learning of others (Boud et al., 1999). This type of assessment, along with others, is used in many schools, in many disciplines, and at different levels. It recently gained considerable interest in higher education driven by both its educational value and by its ability to provide students with the opportunity to develop important transferrable skills (McGarr and Clifford, 2012). It also brings questions such as the reliability of the student grading, expertise of the peer assessors, power relations, and time available to implement this process (Liu & Carless, 2006; Van Den Berg et al., 2006). Patton (2012) reports that although students are in favour of peer assessment as a formative type of evaluation, they are very critical when it is used as a summative process. Similarly, McConlogue (2012) reports that students gained a better understanding from being an assessor, but were concerned that their peer assessors’ marks were not ‘fair’. When asked whether their peers’ assessments should have a greater weight in their final grade, participants in McGarr and Clifford’s (2012) study did not agree, echoing the same concern.

This perception is interesting since other researchers have found that peer evaluation yields similar results as assessments made by the course lecturer (Şahin, 2008). Falchikov and Goldfinch (2000) in their meta-analysis of 48 peer-assessment studies, report that correlations between the marks were higher in studies in which peer assessments involved making overall global judgments using well-understood criteria. Topping (1998) also concludes that peer-assessment shows adequate reliability and validity. On the contrary, De Grez, Valcke and Roozen (2012), looking at a comparison between teacher, self, and peer assessment of oral presentations, found that the total score of the rubric given by teachers was significantly lower than that of the peers. Other researchers have also reported that students’ peer evaluations were not as reliable, accurate and precise as those done by the teachers making it difficult to use as a summative assessment (Freeman, 1995; Goldfinch & Raeside, 1990; Kwan & Leung, 1996; Orsmond, Merry, & Reiling, 1996).

Although the fairness and value of peer assessment in higher education has been well documented in recent years, the relationships that develop among students and the consequent impact on peer assessment has not yet been sufficiently considered. Vu & Dall’Alba (2007), in their case study, mention peer assessor’s worries about causing friction and hurt feelings, or, if the classmate is a friend, believing that it can cause a betrayal of the friend’s trust. They also report the following:

“One student experienced the peer assessment process as stressful, questioning its links to learning: I do not think that it enhances understanding at all because I am too concerned about whether or not I was marking and assessing other people fairly and evenly…. Assessment is not relevant to learning. I do not think that assessing can necessarily lead to learning.
The remaining students also expressed unease about giving marks and criticism to peers. They feared that unfair marks, and inappropriate or overly critical comments, could cause friction with peers. They were concerned that these fears may produce bias in marking.”
presentation

To lower these emotional reactions, they suggest debriefing after the assessment is completed. They also mention that it may give rise to conflicts among students, especially when a class bond has developed. Topping, Smith, Swanson and Elliot (2000) also looked at the emotional reactions of the students and they found that this process is perceived as socially uncomfortable. And Evans et al., (2005) report that students react differently depending on the level of respect they have for their peers; they may only feel comfortable being assessed by peers they respect. On the other hand, Koç (2011) identified the strengthening of relationships between colleagues as one of the numerous benefits of peer assessment.

The purpose of this study is to document the role of existing relationships (friendship, past disagreement, lack of respect) on peer assessment in higher education. This will be done through analyzing peer assessments of the students’ final oral presentation and surveying them to get an understanding of how they perceive peer assessment in higher education in a context where they know each other very well. The participants are selected from a cohort who has been studied together for their whole program (four years for the undergraduates, two years for the graduate students). Most of them will be at the very end of their program in education. They have had many of their courses together, some of them have developed significant friendships, while others have gone through difficult relationships over the years. The following research questions will be addressed:
How do existing relations (friendship, previous disagreement, lack of respect) influence students in assessing their peers?
How is that task perceived by the students?
In a context where students know each other well, is peer assessment perceived as a fair method of evaluation?
Is an assessment form with precise criteria perceived to be helpful (to bring more fairness) in peer assessment?

 

Boucher, H. (in process). A qualitative inquiry of peer assessment among graduate students.

To parallel the previous project, the purpose of this study was to document the experience of being peer assessed and assessing peers as graduate students. Five doctoral students shared their experience with the researcher. A thematic analysis of these description remains to be performed.

 

Boucher, H. and Moisey, T. Understanding musical development : A comparison of the musical compositions of 3rd, 9th, 11th graders and undergraduate university students.

Understanding how children grow and develop has been a constant quest for psychologists. Piaget is certainly one of the most famous theorists of childhood development, taking a scientific angle to this topic and explaining it through distinct stages. In parallel, some authors have tried to explain human musical development during childhood or across the lifespan. Koopman (1995) argues that development needs to have four essential elements. It needs to:

1) involve a process of change which
2) occurs over a certain period of time and in which
3) two or more qualitative different stages occur,
4) each stage being a precondition for its successor.

The difference between qualitative and quantitative changes is explained as follows: a quantitative change is a change in numbers. For example, this might be a change in the number of friends a child has at two and at eight. A qualitative change is a change in quality. The friendships will become deeper and more meaningful.

 

Gardner (1973) proposes a developmental theory of the childhood roots of adult creativity organised in two stages of aesthetics development:

1) Presymbolic Stage (early childhood): exploration of the musical medium: listening, reacting, imitating, humming, singing; the child is in touch with the arts, can differentiate some elements and interact with them.
2) Stage of Symbol Use (age 6-7): internalization of the musical system: dealing with music in accordance with the musical code; arbitrary symbols become connected to the music, the child learns to use them in relation to the cultural norms. At age 6, the child would already have a basic understanding of music (performing and listening) and by 7 years of age, the qualitative development would be completed, the changes coming after would be quantitative only.

 

Gardner, Phelps, and Wolf (1990) revisited Gardner previous’ theory and broadened it to the development of creativity, including the domains of arts, maths and sciences. This model is organised in three phases:

1) Preconventional Stage: independent of the culture, the child explores symbolic medium in his own way, tries to find solution on his own
2) Conventional Stage: the child becomes sensitive to what “culture dictates”, aims to produce symbolic products in the way adults do, conforms to conventions
3) Postconventional Stage: critical attitude toward conventions, the creative person no longer contents himself/herself with imitating but pursues his or her own ends; many adolescents give up creative work and concentrate on reception.

L'horloge

Swanwick and Tillman (1986) on their part, are suggesting a sequence of musical development focusing on children’s musical compositions. They organised their system in four stages:

Stage 1 (0-4 years), Mastery of material (sensory, manipulative)
Stage 2 (4-9 years), Imitation and expression (personal, vernacular)
Stage 3 (10-15 years), Imaginative play with form (speculative, idiomatic)
Stage 4 (15 +), Metacognition and value (symbolic, systematic)

In our study, we will analyse music compositions of students in grade 3, 9, 11, undergraduate students and music undergraduate students. These compositions were made for “The Space Between” exhibit for the Montreal Museum of Fine Arts, under the project called ‘Soundscape II – A follow up experience to R. Murray Schafer’s Soundscapes’. The compositions, visual representations and explanations from the student-composers will be analysed in order to understand if they support the previous theories or if a new theory of musical development needs to arise.

Visual Representation of a Musical Soundscape
by Grade 3 Students, titled "L'horloge" (The Clock).

Boucher, H. and Lee, J. (in process). Exploratory study of a formal musical education approach (Kodaly) in the context of lifelong learning.

adult

Among the different approaches to music education, those grouped under the name of "active methods" - Dalcroze, Orff, Kodaly, Martenot - mostly emerged in Europe at the beginning of the 20th century (Dauphin, 2011). The Kodaly method was developed in Hungary by Zoltan Kodaly with the help of his students and has subsequently been implemented in many countries including Canada. This method is characterized by a sequence of learning based on the musical development of children, by the use of a repertoire of children's and folk songs drawn from the culture in which the child bathes and by the use of certain educational tools such as rhythmic syllables, handsigns and the moveable do system (Choksy, 1999).This method is still very successful today and is present in many university training courses for music teachers in Canada, the United States, England and Australia, among others (Houlahan & Tacka, 2015). It has been widely used in preschool and primary education for several years, and numerous research studies have highlighted its contributions to children's musical and extra-musical development (Goopy, 2013; Hurwitz, Wolff, Bortnick, & Kokas , 1975; Olson, 2002; GÖKTÜRK CARY, 2012; Hanson, 2003). This approach is also used, but to a lesser extent, in the teaching of music in secondary school, mainly in choral programs (Miller, 1980). Instrumental programs, on the other hand, remain more faithful to so-called traditional approaches (Howard, 1996).

In recent years, a new field in music education has gained recognition: community music (Elliott, 2012). This area recognizes the possibility, and the importance, of lifelong learning and the need to develop appropriate tools and competent teachers to work in a variety of contexts. One of its important aspects is the fact that teachers are working with adult learners, with very different musical knowledge and experiences from one to the other. This requires great flexibility, an ability to understand various personal and professional motivations, while calling on a wide range of experiences of performance, creation and listening (Myers, 2018).

In this study, we want to explore the use of the Kodaly method in a context of lifelong learning. We want to document the extent to which a formal approach can be adapted to teaching music in the community. To do this, we would like to follow the process of introduction to music for a dozen men (aged 20 to 60), enrolled in the bachelor in philosophy and theology of the Montreal Theological Training Institute, affiliated to the Grand Séminaire de Montreal. These men themselves requested to receive musical training focused on singing. The content of the course which will be offered to them will consist in developing the inner ear and the ability to sing (unison, harmonization, parts and solo) while offering them the tools necessary to better read a musical score, all while referring to the principles of the Kodaly method. Particular attention will be paid to their specific needs and the skills of performance and creation will be mainly addressed. The main objective of this research is to document this experience of the use of the Kodaly method in a lifelong learning context and the sub-objectives are to identify musical learning and extra-musical gains that may occur during this process.

       
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On Going Research Projects

Boucher, H. and Gaudette-Leblanc, A. (in process). The contribution of the parent's participation in a program of musical activities in early childhood.
       

baby

In Quebec, in order to allow family and professional life to have a better flow, parents of children under the age of 5 have access to a network of subsidized educational childcare services, attended by an increasing number of children each year (Ministry of the Family, Directorate General of Policies, 2014). In the United States, in 2016, almost two-thirds of children aged 3 to 5 participated in a preschool education program (National Center for Education Statistics, 2016). At the same time, in community settings, various play education programs are now offered to children and their caregivers (Williams, Berthelsen, Viviani and Nicholson, 2018).

Music education programs are part of these services and seem to be attracting increasing interest from parents and the educational community (Abad and Barrett, 2017; Trehub and Degé, 2015). This increased interest can be explained by the fact that these programs are fun and accessible to a wide range of families. For example, in Australia, the Sing and Grow program is nationally based and offers parents and children with special needs the opportunity to participate in parent-child dyad musical activities. At the international level, Music Together® and Kindermusik® are both offered to families as well as in educational settings (with or without the parent).

From the parents' point of view, participation in a music education program could contribute to the socio-emotional development of young children (Nicholson, Berthelsen, Abad, William and Bradley, 2010; Pitt and Hargreaves, 2017a, 2017b). This perception converges with all the research documenting the impact of the practice of music on the social development of children (Hallam, 2010; Hallam, 2015; Schellenberg, 2016; Trehub & Degé, 2015). Indeed, research data indicate that certain characteristics, inherent to music, favor dyadic synchrony and make it more available to interactions (Cirelli, Trehub, & Trainor, 2018; Trehub and Cirelli, 2018). Specifically, research indicates that before the age of one year, the child would be more engaged and show more sustained attention towards his interlocutor when the latter presents him with a song in a joyful manner (Cirelli, Jurewicz & Trehub, 2019; Corbeil, Trehub & Peretz, 2013; Costa-Giomi and Ilari, 2014; Trehub, Platinga & Russo, 2016). In addition, some studies suggest that infants would be more likely to interact socially with strangers who offer them a song if this song has already been presented to them interactively by their parents (Mehr, Song, & Spelke, 2016; Mehr & Spelke, 2017). Finally, they would be more inclined to help a stranger with whom they have already interacted by singing (especially if the song presented by the stranger is familiar) or by moving in synchrony (Cirelli, Einarson & Trainor, 2014; Cirelli & Trehub, 2018; Kirschner & Tomasello, 2010). These results suggest that participation in a music education program could promote the young child's socio-emotional development.

Recently, a meta-analysis was performed to measure the impact of a music program on the socio-emotional development of young children (Gaudette-Leblanc et al., in writing). In this analysis, we were able to establish the size of this effect as being moderately large (d = .67, p <.001). One of the factors having been considered as a moderating variable being the presence or not of the parent during musical activities. Unfortunately, this could not be calculated since only one of the studies selected had taken place without the parent's presence (Brown and Sax, 2013). Furthermore, research on the impact of parental participation when school-aged children learn to play an instrument has revealed that the presence and attitudes of parents have a major influence on children's musical engagement (Creech, 2009; Ilari, 2018). Parents' participation could therefore possibly contribute to the effectiveness of musical interventions in young children and to their socio-emotional development.

Our interest in this study therefore concerns the contribution that the parent's participation can have during an early childhood music education program. More specifically, we would like to have a better understanding of the contribution of a music education program on the socio-emotional development of young children (2-5 years old) in two contexts:1- Community music education program (with parent) 2- Music education program in an educational environment (without parent)

Our main research questions are:Is the presence or not of the parent during musical activities with children influence the effect of the program on the socio-emotional development of children? Is the presence or not of the parent during musical activitie influence musical activities done at home?

       

 

Boucher, H. et al. Recueil de chansons folkloriques pour l'enseignement de la musique au Québec selon la méthode Kodaly.Folksong collection for teaching music in
       Québec according to the Kodaly method.

The Kodaly method was developed under the leadership of Hungarian composer Zoltán Kodály (1882-1967) as a structured approach to music education . At the core of this vision, the music from the culture and language of the learner is perceived as the best music for teaching purposes. This vision has been adapted to many countries and cultures around the world.

A collection of folksongs in the French language, with an emphasis on the musical culture from Quebec (Canada) is under development. The goal is to generate a database that would include a large collection of songs, allowing the music teacher to teach the different essential knowledge. It would also include a detailed analysis of those songs offering an efficient retrieval system. This work now counts over 200 songs and is still developing.

 

Boucher, H. et Ons, B.(en cours). Étude des jeux musicaux de cours d’école au Québec : pour mieux comprendre l’éducation musicale informelle.

Il est maintenant reconnu que les expériences musicales informelles participent au développement des enfants et incarnent une partie de leurs cultures musicales. Les jeux musicaux de cours d’école (jeux de mains, de cordes à danser, d’élastiques, de ballons, de poursuite) sont une des composantes de ces cultures. Ceux jeux ont d’ailleurs été recensés et analysés dans différents pays dont l’Australie, les États-Unis, l’Afrique du Sud et le Canada anglais, pour être ensuite utilisés à des fins pédagogiques. Cette recherche n’ayant pas été faite au Québec, il est important de documenter ces pratiques musicales qui sont en compétition avec la culture numérique mondialisée, de façon à sauvegarder ce répertoire. Ceci nous permettra de mieux comprendre les caractéristiques, complexités et spécificités des chants et jeux de notre territoire et d’enrichir le matériel pédagogique des musiciens-éducateurs. Cette recherche a pour objectifs de : 1) documenter les pratiques musicales utilisées par les enfants dans les cours d’écoles primaires francophones québécoises, 2) développer une grille d’analyse, inspirée des analyses de chants folkloriques, qui permettra de mettre en lumière les caractéristiques propres à ce répertoire, 3) faire l’analyse, en lien avec la grille développée, du répertoire recueilli auprès des enfants 4) rendre disponible les comptines, chansons et jeux aux enseignants en musique de façon à ce qu’ils puissent être intégrés à la classe de musique formelle, 5) émettre des recommandations sur une séquence pédagogique des différents concepts musicaux en fonction des capacités réelles des enfants et des caractéristiques spécifiques du répertoire de notre territoire.

 

Boucher, H., Gaudette-Leblanc, A. et Raymond, J. (en cours). The role of play in early childhood music education: A systematic review.

Au cours des dernières décennies, les chercheurs et les éducateurs ont adopté le jeu comme le meilleur véhicule d'apprentissage chez les jeunes enfants. Le monde de l'éducation musicale en petite enfance est également enraciné dans l'idée que le développement musical est le mieux stimulé par le jeu. En discutant de «l'état d'avancement» de la recherche sur l'éducation musicale de la petite enfance, Young (2016) commente les tendances et les cadres qui sont utilisés par les chercheurs dans différents contextes et pays. Elle identifie deux changements majeurs dans le paradigme de la recherche au cours des 20 dernières années. Les théories comportementales sur le nourrisson «incompétent» et le nourrisson comme «une ardoise vierge» ont été éclipsées par la vision constructiviste de l'enfant «compétent» qui réagit habilement à son environnement. En outre, il y a maintenant une reconnaissance de l'importance de l'étude de la musique en tant que pratique familiale socioculturelle dans les sociétés post-migratoires ethniquement diverses.

Dans le monde de l'éducation musicale en petite enfance, contrairement à celui des adolescents, des adultes ou des personnes âgées, il existe déjà un corpus important de connaissances sur le rôle du jeu dans l'apprentissage de la musique. Nous souhaitons proposer une revue systématique de la littérature publiée en utilisant la syntaxe suivante: Musique * et Jeu * et «Jeunes enfants» ou «Petite enfance». Des bases de données majeures en éducation et en psychologie seront recherchées et analysées pour identifier les articles pertinents, ils seront ensuite organisées en fonction des thèmes qui émergeront. La littérature sera examinée pour identifier les différents cadres et théories utilisés, pour analyser les résultats de la recherche quantitative et pour fournir la taille de l'effet lorsque cela est possible et, pour étudier des sujets dans lesquels des chercheurs en études qualitatives ont transformé le jeune enfant du sujet de l'étude à un égal, participant au processus de recherche.

Nous pensons qu'un tel examen aidera à consolider notre compréhension de l'apprentissage de la musique par le jeu dans les premières années. Cela pourrait également inciter les chercheurs à examiner des sujets similaires et à utiliser des procédures de recherche comparables avec des participants plus âgés. De plus, ceci contribuera à la circulation de différents points de vue associés à la pédagogie du jeu et de la musique pour les éducateurs en petite enfance.

 

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